Other novel hydrogen production methods.
Several other technologies that produce less mature green hydrogen are either available, or under development. Examples are direct water decomposition, using solar energy (e.g., thermal, photo- or combined photothermal catalysis).
Biological hydrogen production (e.g., with algae or bacteria), in addition to hydrogen production, also allows the manufacturing of additional CCU products (e.g., methane or alcohols). In addition to the exploratory research, there is a domestic applied research capacity in the field within University of Szeged, University of Pannonia, Budapest University of Technology and Economics (BME), and Power-to-Gas Hungary Kft.
Hydrogen can be used for energy production in fuel cells, gas turbines, and internal combustion engines. It is currently used in gas turbines only after being mixed with natural gas, because of the high temperature of the combustion chamber. Attempts are also made to make possible to use pure hydrogen. An essentially similar scenario applies for gas engines. In terms of both energy production and transport use, fuel cells represent the main conversion equipment. Therefore, we will discuss them in more detail below.
Energy produced by wind and solar energy fluctuates significantly. In addition, wind farms are often far away from the consumers. Therefore, this power must either be transmitted to the consumption centers via cable or stored and then fed into the energy system as required. Hydrogen technology is a means to accomplish this task. Here, electricity generated from renewable sources is used to feed an electrolysis process that electrochemically splits water into hydrogen and oxygen, which represent a means in which this energy can be stored and transported. Hydrogen produced in this way can then be converted into electricity. This green hydrogen serves to increase security of supply and network resilience.